Climate Change Intro


There is no denying it – we live in a world with a changing climate. To put climate change into perspective, we need to be reminded of that simple fact that we learned in high school – for the past several million years, the earth has been going through a series of ice ages that blanket North America & Europe in glacial ice, sometimes 2 or 3 kilometers thick. These glacial actions wax and wane over the cycle, and each cycle has a period that is relatively ice-free, called the inter-glacial, and we are in one now. Here is a chart showing the temperature for a complete glacial cycle. It is actually a bit more than one cycle so that you are able to compare our current inter-glacial with the previous inter-glacial.

Screen Shot 2015-12-11 at 9.16.41 PM

There are few things worth noting which helps put our current situation into perspective. For one thing, the previous inter-glacial was quite a bit warmer than now, for most of it, and as much as 4 degrees C warmer than present. That is quite astounding when you think about it. We are being misled into thinking that global warming is unprecedented when in actual reality, we are significantly colder than we should be.

The graph is showing us one complete cycle of an ice age so that we can understand what typically occurs. Starting at the right, and moving left, from 140 thousand years ago to 130 thousand years ago, the temperature rose from about -10C to +4C. This heralds the end of the glacial period and defines the inter-glacial. It is warm enough to melt away all the glaciers blanketing the earth, with the exception of the permanent ice cap in Antarctica and high altitude regions. We can pretty much consider any period above the -2 temperature line in the graph as the inter-glacial and anything below as the glacial. As you can see, the inter-glacial is relatively short lived and by the 120 thousand year point, the temperature has dropped below the zero line and the long slow glacial period gets underway until about the 18 thousand year point where the temperature suddenly shoots up again. The next inter-glacial, the one we are currently in, started around 12 or 14 thousand years ago.

What to make of this? Well, it should be pretty clear that our current situation is well within the envelope of temperature ranges for a typical ice age.  If you take a moment to compare our current inter-glacial period with the previous three inter-glacials, it should be obvious that the warming trend we have been experiencing is very likely to continue for at least a few more thousand more years as we still have another 4 degrees of warming left just to achieve the what occurred during recent ice ages. This is not a prediction, I am just merely indicating that our current situation sits inside the range of normal behaviour for an ice age. And if it were to warm another 4 degrees, then that would also be within the normal behaviour for a typical cycle.

The other thing that should be terribly obvious at this point, is that the temperature during the last 8,000 years have been relatively stable compared to the previous 140,000 years. You will see this again in some of the other pages as we expand on the time scale in the next chapter.


It is surprisingly difficult to see a graph of modern temperature readings superimposed over temperature readings obtained from Ice Core data. But it is important to do this because we need to take our present situation into context.

Central England Temperature 1650 – 2018

Here is a graph taken from a database of actual thermometer readings taken over three centuries in Central England. Yet another perspective on climate change. Today is barely different than it was 350 years ago. Take a look at the summer temperature in 1650. 15.5? Take a look at the summer temperature today. 15.7? So how is this catastrophic? Why the alarm? How is this man-made? A slight warming trend over the long term to be sure, but just as we would expect, since we are in the midst of the warming portion of the glacial cycle. When the cooling trend starts it won’t be pleasant and it will last about 110,000 years.

[display-posts tag=”temperature” posts_per_page=”50″]


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    Различные факторы, такие как история болезни, система поддержки и личная мотивация, могут сыграть свою роль в успехе вашего выздоровления. Лечение должно проходить под наблюдением группы медицинских специалистов в реабилитационном центре. По всей стране в центрах лечения алкоголизма работают профессионалы, которые проведут вас через все этапы процесса выздоровления – от детоксикации до жизни после реабилитации. Считайте их своей круглосуточной системой поддержки, которая будет радоваться вашим успехам и вместе с вами преодолевать любые трудности.
    Помните, что преодоление алкоголизма – это процесс. Менее половины людей рецидивируют после достижения одного года трезвости. Это число уменьшается до менее 15% после пяти лет трезвости. Чтобы получить наибольшие шансы на долгосрочную трезвость после завершения стационарной или амбулаторной программы, вам следует участвовать в местных группах поддержки и продолжать консультации. Лечение алкоголизма – это инвестиция в ваше будущее. Оно изменит к лучшему не только вашу жизнь, но и жизнь окружающих вас людей, таких как члены семьи и друзья.

  52. Cami Halısı Modelleri Cami halısı modelleri, caminin dekorasyonu ile uyumlu olmalı. Desen ve renklerin bütünlük sağlaması tercih sebebidir. İbadet için gelen cemaatin gözünü yormayacak şekilde model ve renkler daha hoş bir görüntü oluşturur. Çeşidin fazla olması halı seçilecek camideki dekorasyona uygun halıyı seçmeyi kolaylaştırır. Cami halılarında, Türk motifleri sıkça kullanılır. Cami halıları çeşitleri arasından Türk motifli ya da düz olanlar seçilebilir. Düz olan modellerin yanı sıra, daha canlı renk ve desende olan cami halıları da mevcuttur. Caminin iç dizaynı, ahşap oymaları ile halının bütünlük sağlaması zarif bir ayrıntıdır. Osmanlı zamanından bugüne, kırmızı ve yeşil renk olan halılar, en çok tercih edilen renkler arasında. Bu renklerden daha farklı birçok renk seçeneği de vardır.

  53. Что такое гибкие кабели?
    Самый простой кабель – это одножильный провод с пластиковой оболочкой.
    Он может гнуться и сохраняет этот изгиб – если вы не делаете это слишком часто, потому что иначе провод ломается.
    Такие простые кабели используются в домашних установках.
    После установки кабель остается нетронутым в течение десятилетий.
    Такие твердые провода не подходят для многих других применений, где кабели должны быть гибкими и эластичными.
    Здесь проводники в жилах состоят из нитей – пучков тонких проволок, которые можно сгибать миллионы раз, в зависимости от конструкции, не ломая и не теряя свойств тока или передачи данных.
    Одно из самых неприятных мест для кабеля – тяговая цепь. Здесь кабели питания, сервопривода и передачи данных расположены близко друг к другу и перемещаются вперед-назад по мере работы машины.
    Иногда со скоростью более пяти метров в секунду с ускорением, превышающим ускорение силы тяжести более чем в пять раз.
    Кабели проложены в тяговой цепи таким образом, что они изгибаются только в одном направлении.
    КГ 2х70-1