Quick run through of wikipedia articles to get a grasp of the political landscape. I am troubled by the apparent viewpoints being expressed here. It is highly opinionated and not a fair and reasonable expression of a range of viewpoints. The writer’s biases have crept in. Nevertheless, a good place to start.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, organic society, hierarchy, authority, and property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, and property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity. The more traditional elements—reactionaries—oppose modernism and seek a return to “the way things were”. Disposition in politics to preserve what is established – a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, stressing established institutions, and preferring gradual development to abrupt change. such a philosophy calling for lower taxes, limited government regulation of business and investing, a strong national defense, and individual financial responsibility for personal needs (such as retirement income or health-care coverage)
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty, consent of the governed, and equality before the law. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support limited government, individual rights (including civil rights and human rights), capitalism (free markets), democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion.
Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy. Individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of social reform. As a philosophy, it is based on the idea of progress, which asserts that advancements in science, technology, economic development and social organization are vital to the improvement of the human condition. Progressives in the early-20th century as well as now, take the view that progress is being stifled by vast economic inequality between the rich and the poor; minimally regulated laissez-faire capitalism with monopolistic corporations; and intense and often violent conflict between workers and capitalists, thus claiming that measures were needed to address these problems. Early-20th century progressivism was also tied to eugenics and the temperance movement, both of which were promoted in the name of public health, and were promoted as initiatives toward that goal. Contemporary progressives promote public policies that they believe will lead to positive social change.
Fascism (is a form of radical right-wing, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and of the economy
National Socialism more commonly known as Nazism , is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party—officially the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP)—in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar ideas and aims.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of extreme nationalism, nativist ideologies, and authoritarian tendencies. These can lead to oppression, violence, forced assimilation, ethnic cleansing, and even genocide against groups of people based on their supposed inferiority, or their perceived threat to the native ethnic group, nation, state, national religion, dominant culture or ultraconservative traditional social institutions
Right-wing populism is a political ideology which combines right-wing politics and populist rhetoric and themes. The rhetoric often consists of anti-elitist sentiments, opposition to the perceived Establishment, and speaking to the “common people.” In Europe, the term right-wing populism is used to describe groups, politicians and political parties that are generally known for their opposition to immigration, mostly from the Islamic world and in most cases Euroscepticism. Right-wing populism in the Western world is generally—though not exclusively—associated with ideologies such as anti-environmentalism, neo-nationalism, anti-globalization, nativism, protectionism, and opposition to immigration. Traditional right-wing views such as opposition to the increasing amount of support for the welfare state and a “more lavish, but more restrictive, domestic social spending” scheme is also called right-wing populism and it is sometimes called “welfare chauvinism”
Left-wing populism combines left-wing politics and populist rhetoric and themes. The rhetoric of left-wing populism often consists of anti-elitist sentiments, opposition to the Establishment and speaking for the “common people“. The important themes for left-wing populists usually include anti-capitalism, social justice, pacifism and anti-globalization,
Ok, so what are the basic principles that one can evaluate the various political identities agains?
- limited government – govt restricted by constitution
- individual rights – human rights protected by constitution
- rule of law – implies that every person is subject to the law, including people who are lawmakers, law enforcement officials, and judges
- capitalism (free markets) – private ownership of the means of production and their operations for profit.
- democracy – citizens vote
- secularism – exclusion of religious considerations
- gender equality – equal ease of access to resources and opportunities without regard to gender
- racial equality – equal ease of access to resources and opportunities without regard to race
- internationalism (transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people)
- freedom of speech – freedom to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or legal sanction. everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice”. may not be recognized as being absolute. libel, slander, obscenity, pornography, sedition, incitement, fighting words, classified information, copyright violation, trade secrets, food labeling, non-disclosure agreements, the right to privacy, the right to be forgotten, public security, and perjury.
- freedom of the press – absence of interference from an overreaching state
- freedom of religion – freedom in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance
- liberty is the ability to do as one pleases. In modern politics, liberty is the state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one’s way of life, behavior, or political views
- tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past
- Authority is the right to exercise power, which can be formalized by a state and exercised by way of judges, appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives
- right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
- consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government‘s legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised
- equality under the law, is the principle that each independent being must be treated equally by the law (principle of isonomy) and that all are subject to the same laws of justice (due process). Therefore, the law must guarantee that no individual nor group of individuals be privileged or discriminated against by the government
- Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process
- economic freedom comes from the liberal tradition emphasizing free markets, free trade, and private property under free enterprise
- reform movement is a type of social movement that aims to bring a social or political system closer to the community’s ideal
- Progress is the movement towards a refined, improved, or otherwise desired state or, in the context of progressivism, the idea that advancements in technology, science, and social organization can result in an improved human condition; the latter may happen as a result of direct human action, as in social enterprise or through activism, or as a natural part of sociocultural evolution
Current Social issues of the day, create a few baskets or categories of thought.